Tthe Supreme Court, Maryborough was established as a Circuit Court from Brisbane prior to separation from New South Wales. Judge Lutwyche, in a letter he wrote on 26 October 1858 as Resident Judge, Moreton Bay, refers to a New South Wales proclamation of 11 October 1859 commencing the Court.
On 7 August 1861, the Supreme Court, Maryborough was fully constituted under the "Supreme Court Constitution Amendment Act 1861". Under this Act, in a proclamation by Governor Bowen of 7 December 1861, a Circuit Court of the Supreme Court was established to sit at Maryborough twice each year. The Circuit Court of Maryborough comprised the Police Districts of Gayndah, Nanango, Gladstone, Rockhampton and Kennedy.
The full powers and legal jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of New South Wales were retrospectively transferred to the Supreme Court of Queensland under the "Supreme Court Act 1863".
The above Acts, and also the "Supreme Court Act of 1867", allowed for the setting of time and places of Circuit Courts, which were full courts and courts of record.
The Supreme Court exercises broad original jurisdiction (ie right to hear cases at first instance) in major civil and criminal matters as well as appellate jurisdiction (ie the right to hear appeals from a lower court].
The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court has included powers to administer legislation and to hear cases relating to: equity, insolvency, liquidation and registration of companies, elections, naturalisation, registration of printing presses and types, registration of newspapers and trade marks, ecclesiastical law, matrimony, property, local government laws, trusts and trustees, and the enrolment of barristers and solicitors.
From 31 Mar 1922 to 19 Mar 1959 the Supreme Court took on some of the functions of the District Court.
Until the introduction of the "Supreme Court Act of 1874", the Brisbane Supreme Court and the Circuit Courts were required to deal with all judicial matters of their concern that might arise within Queensland. After this date, Supreme Court districts were established and the Circuit Court, Maryborough became part of the Southern District with the judge resident in Brisbane travelling to Maryborough.
The "Supreme Court of Queensland Act 1991" abolished Circuit Courts, including Maryborough and anything done or existing to a previous Circuit Court continued with the Supreme Court.